Stress Urinary Incontinence

The involuntary loss of urine when there is an increase in intra-abdominal pressure.  For example, leakage of urine that occurs when a person coughs, sneezes, laughs, lifts or jumps.

Urge Urinary Incontinence

The presence of a strong compelling urge to urinate that cannot be controlled and results in the leakage of urine.

Fecal Incontinence

The involuntary loss of liquid or solid stool or the inability to control gas or flatus.

Pudendal Neuralgia

The pudendal nerve is the primary nerve supplying autonomic, sensory and motor function to the genitalia, bladder and rectal muscles. This nerve can become compressed or irritated causing pain in the pelvic region.  Common causes of pudendal nerve irritation include prolonged sitting, difficult childbirth and cycling.

Helpful Link:

Posture and the Pelvic Floor

Urinary Incontinence or Pain after Prostatectomy Surgery

Some reasons for post-prostatectomy incontinence and pelvic pain may include: weakened pelvic floor muscles, poor co-ordination or dysfunctional muscles and scar tissue development.

Pelvic physiotherapy can be very helpful both before and after prostate surgery.  You may also find this audio clip about ‘Prostate Surgery Care – Prehab to Rehab’ helpful.

Interstitial cystitis (IC or painful bladder syndrome)

A condition involving the bladder, which becomes hypersensitive or inflamed. In rare occasions, it may involve red patches or lesions within the bladder wall known as Hunner’s ulcers. Common symptoms associated with IC include: urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, burning and pain.

Learn more about IC/BPS and how diet can affect your bladder.

Levator Ani Syndrome

The levator ani refers to a group of muscles that make up a large portion of the pelvic floor. These muscles can go into spasm resulting in pain that may appear in the perineum, rectum or tailbone area.


The medical term for painful intercourse. Both males and females can experience pain with intercourse. Pelvic pain can be experienced during sex, initial or deep penetration and orgasm.


Pelvic pain experienced over the tailbone or coccyx which usually worsens with prolonged sitting.

Helpful Link:

Posture and the Pelvic Floor

Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) or chronic non-bacterial prostatitis

Includes pelvic pain in males wherein all other possible causes of pain have been ruled out yet pain in the pelvis persists. Common symptoms include: urinary urgency or frequency, a feeling of pain or a ‘golf ball’ in the rectum, pain upon ejaculation and decreased libido. It may also present as testicular, groin or penile pain. Learn more about CPPS or chronic non-bacterial prostatitis here.

You may also find these links helpful:

Biopsychosocial Factors that Influence Pelvic Pain

PGAD - Pervasive Genital Arousal Disorder

Pervasive Genital Arousal Disorder (PGAD): PGAD is described as spontaneous, unwanted genital arousal in the absence of any subjective perception of sexual interest or desire, occurring for a period of 6 months or more. Learn more about PGAD here.


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Did you know?

Pelvic floor strengthening can help improve urinary incontinence after prostate surgery